Tuesday, September 22, 2009

Potential Uses for Hydrogen (Hidrogen Fuel)

Hidrogen Fuel

Potential Uses for Hydrogen


When properly stored, hydrogen as a fuel burns in either a gaseous or liquid state. Motor vehicles and furnaces can be converted to use hydrogen as a fuel (hidrogen fuel). Hydrogen has actually been used in the transportation, industrial, and residential sectors in the United States for many years. Many people in the late 19th century burned a fuel called "town gas," which is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Several countries, including Brazil and Germany, still distribute this fuel. Hydrogen
(hidrogen fuel) was used in early "hot-air" balloons, and later in airships (dirigibles) during the early 1900's. Gaseous hydrogen was used in 1820 as fuel for one of the earliest internal combustion engines. The U.S. Air Force had a secret, multi-million dollar program during the 1950's, code-named "Suntan," to develop hydrogen as a fuel for airplanes. Currently, industries use large quantities of hydrogen (hidrogen fuel) for refining petroleum, and for producing ammonia and methanol. The Space Shuttle uses hydrogen as fuel for its rockets. Automobile manufacturers have developed hydrogen-powered cars.

Burning hydrogen
(hidrogen fuel) creates less air pollution than gasoline or diesel. Hydrogen also has a higher flame speed, wider flammability limits, higher detonation temperature, burns hotter, and takes less energy to ignite than gasoline. This means that hydrogen (hidrogen fuel) burns faster, but carries the danger of pre-ignition and flashback. While hydrogen has its advantages as a vehicle fuel it still has a long way to go before it can be used as a substitute for gasoline. This is mainly due to the investment required to develop a hydrogen (hidrogen fuel) production and distribution infrastructure.

However, things are getting started in this regard. Vehicle manufacturers Honda and BMW have set up hydrogen
(hidrogen fuel) fueling stations as part of their efforts to develop fuel cell powered cars. At Honda's research and development center in Torrance, California, a PV array electrolyses hydrogen from water. The array generates enough hydrogen to power one fuel-cell vehicle. Additional power from the power grid is used to increase the hydrogen (hidrogen fuel) production capacity. The new station is supporting Honda's fuel cell vehicle development program for hydrogen (hidrogen fuel) production, storage, and fueling. Honda and a fuel cell developer are also working together on a "home" hydrogen refueling system for fuel cell vehicles. BMW opened a hydrogen fueling station at the company's engineering and emissions control test center in Oxnard, California. BMW is taking a different approach than most car companies, burning hydrogen directly in advanced internal-combustion engines, and is testing these vehicles at the Oxnard facility.

The California Fuel Cell Partnership (CaFCP) is also building a hydrogen
(hidrogen fuel) infrastructure. The CaFCP commissioned its first "satellite" hydrogen fueling system in late October 2002, in Richmond, California, about 70 miles from the CaFCP headquarters and a primary refueling facility in West Sacramento. This extends the range over which the CaFCP's prototype fuel cell vehicles can be driven. The fueling system uses electrolysis to generate hydrogen from water and includes a storage unit capable of holding 104 pounds (47 kilograms) of hydrogen(hidrogen fuel). It is capable of fueling a small fleet of vehicles and requires only one or two minutes per refueling.

In November 2002, the world's first hydrogen energy station that can provide fuel for vehicles and also produce electricity opened in Las Vegas Nevada. The station is located in the city's vehicle maintenance and operation service center. It combines an on-site hydrogen generator, compressor, liquid and gaseous hydrogen storage tanks, dispensing systems, and a stationary fuel cell. It is capable of dispensing hydrogen
(hidrogen fuel), hydrogen-enriched natural gas, and compressed natural gas. DOE is also working with the city to convert municipal vehicles to operate on hydrogen.

Fuel cells are a type of technology that use hydrogen
(hidrogen fuel) to produce useful energy. In fuel cells, electrolysis is reversed by combining hydrogen and oxygen through an electrochemical process, which produces electricity, heat, and water. The U.S. space program has used fuel cells to power spacecraft for decades. Fuel cells capable of powering automobiles and buses have been and are being developed. Several companies are developing fuel cells for stationary power generation. Most major automobile manufacturers are developing fuel cell powered automobiles.

Hydrogen
(hidrogen fuel) could be considered a way to store energy produced from renewable resources such as solar, wind, biomass, hydro, and geothermal. For example, when the sun is shining, solar photovoltaic systems can provide the electricity needed to separate the hydrogen (as described above regarding Humboldt State University's Research Center). The hydrogen (hidrogen fuel) could then be stored and burned as fuel, or to operate a fuel cell to generate electricity at night or during cloudy periods.
Source: http://www.hydrogenfuel.net/

Hidrogen Fuel

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